Laon – Laan


ISBN: 978-621-409-111-9
Author: Augusto V. de Viana

ISBN: 978-621-409-111-9 SKU: N/A Category: Tags: , ,


ISBN: 978-621-409-111-9
Author: Augusto V. de Viana


Additional information

Book Type

Hard Copy, e-book

Table of Contents

Chapter 1
The Rizal Law and Society’s Response 1
The Rizal Law: Why Students are Required to Study the Life of Rizal
and his Works 1
The Story of the Rizal Law 4
Exercises 11
How to Write a Thought Paper 15

Chapter 2 Literature, Its Uses and Effects 17
The Power of the Written Word 17
Literature and Its Purposes 18
The Connection of Literature to Nationalism 20
Philippine Literature and the Development of Nationalism 23
Rizal, His Companions and their Use of Literature to Foster
Nationalism 24
Exercises 27

Chapter 3 Rizal and Nationalism Creating an Imagined
Community 33
The Definition of Nationalism and Elements that Contribute to
Nationalism 33
Nation, an Imagined Community? 35
Models for Nationalism 36
• The French, English Russian and Spanish Models 36
• The American Model 37
• The Latin American Models 38
• The Italian Model 39
Nationalism as a Way of Change 40
Nationalism in the Philippine Context 40
Bayan, Bansa and Kalayaan and the Goal of the Filipino Nationalism 41
Nationalism and Patriotism 41
Rizal and How His Works Helped Develop Nationalism 42
Exercises 45

Chapter 4 Rizal as Viewed by the Common People:
Popular Nationalism 49
The Fruits of the Nationalist Struggle 51
How was Rizal seen from the Sidelines and Below? 53
Exercises 57

Chapter 5 Examining Rizal’s Historical and Social Context 61
The 19th Century: The Century of Rizal, The age of Commercial and
Industrial Revolutions 61
Change in Political Thinking 64
Political Change in Spain 65
The Rise of the Middle Class 66
Obstacle of the Middle Class: Limpieza de Sangre 67
The Intellectual Shift: From Religion to Science 68
The Spanish Empire in Rizal’s Time 69
The Soberania Monacal-Monastic Supremacy in the Philippines 70
Exercises 73

Chapter 6 Rizal and the Chinese Connection 77
The Role of the Chinese in the Philippines 77
The Ancestry of Rizal: The Chinese Connection 81
Exercises 83

Chapter 7 Land Ownership and the Rise of Friar Lands 87
Land Ownership by the Church 87
The Inquilino Role in the Agrarian Problem 89
The Hacienda de Calamba: The Role of Rizal and His Family 89
The Hacienda de Calamba Controversy 91
Exercises 95

Chapter 8 Cracks within the Catholic Church
and the Cavite Mutiny 99
The Church During the Spanish Period: The Seculariziation Issue 99
The Church in the 19th Century: The Secularization Awakens Filipino
Nationalism 102
Exercises 107

Chapter 9 The Historical Context of Rizal’s Education 109
Rizal’s Early Education 109
The Role of Dominicans in Philippine Education 110
Exercises 117

Chapter 10 Rizal in Europe: The Beginning of the Propaganda
Movement 119
The Decision to Go to Europe 119
Rizal the Propagandist 120
Reformist or Propagandist? 121
Propaganda, defined 121
Role of the Freemasonry and Protestantism 122
Exposure to Ideas 122
Propaganda and Reformist Groups 123
Start of Propaganda 124
The Quality of Rizal’s Propaganda: How Much of this was true? 125
Exercises 127

Chapter 11 The Noli Me Tangere: Its Historical Context 135
Background of the Noli: The Desire for a Filipino Novel 135
Synopsis of the Noli Me Tangere 137
The Effect of the Noli in the Formation of Filipino National
Consciousness 140
Exercises 145

Chapter 12 Evaluating the Main Characters of the Noli Me
Tangere 147
Who were the Heroes and Anti-Heroes of the Noli Me Tangere? 147
Juan Crisostomo Ibarra 147
Elias 149
The Anti-Heroes: Padre Damaso and Padre Salvi 150
The Natives Themselves 151
The Historical Context of the Characters of the Noli Me Tangere and
Real Life 153
Exercises 157

Chapter 13 Rizal’s Search for the Precolonial Past and Ilustrado
View of Themselves 161
Background 161
Description of the Book 162
What Rizal did with Morga’s Book 165
Exercises 169

Chapter 14 Rizal’s Use of the Precolonial Past 175
Rizal and the Role of the Ilustrados In Uncovering the View of the
Precolonial Past 176
Rizal’s View of the Precolonial Past As Compared to Actual Historical
Findings 177
Precolonial History as a Catalyst for Nationalism 182
Exercises 185

Chapter 15 Rizal and the Origin of the Filipino Race 189
Contribution of Blumentritt 192
Critics in the Approach 192
Exercises 195

Chapter 16 The El Filibusterismo and Rizal’s Abandonment of
Assimilation 201
The Origin and Use of the Term 202
Rizal’s Choice for the the Title of the Novel 202
Summary of the Novel 203
The Personal Context of the Novel 208
The Wider National Context of The Novel 210
Exercises 213
Chapter 17 The Contribution of the Noli and Fili
to the National Consciousness 221
The Noli and Fili Compared 221
What if there is a Sequel to the Fili? 223
The Effects of Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo to the National
Consciousness 223
Exercises 227

Chapter 18 Rizal’s Politico-Historical Essays 231
Rizal’s Purpose 231
Rizal’s Vision into the Future: The Philippnes a Century Hence 232
The Way to Independence 232
Exercises 237

Chapter 19 Rizal’s Other Novels 243
The Third Novel 243
The Fourth Novel, The Makamisa 244
The Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Novel 244
Exercises 247

Chapter 20 Rizal’s Changing Phases Through His Poetry 251
The Ateneo Poems 251
A Great Work while Studying in Santo Tomas 253
Rizal’s Adult Poems 254
Exercises 257

Chapter 21 Rizal and Colonial Justice 259
Spanish Justice During Rizal’s Time 259
Destierro or Exile 261
Rizal’s Arrest, Trial and Execution 262
Exercises 367

Chapter 22 The Importance of Biography to National History 271
Biography and its Roles 271
Biography and National History 271
On the Recognition of Heroes and Great Men and Women 273
The Definition of a Hero 274
Issues of Recognition of Heroes 276
Holidays for Heroes 278
Exercises 281

Chapter 23 Rizal Beyond the Classroom 285
The Jose Rizal Shrine, Calamba 286
Jose Rizal Shrine, Dapitan City 289
The Rizal Shrine Intramuros 294
Paco Park, Manila 295
First José Rizal Monument, Daet, Camarines Sur 296
Exercises 299

Chapter 24 Rizal in the Pantheon of National Heroes 303
Challenging Rizal 304
Does not deserve to be national hero? 305
Rizal, An American-Made Hero? 306
Overrated Hero? Can Rizal Really Speak 22 Languages? 307
Filipino Hamlet? 308
The First Filipino Versus the Last Spaniard 309
Rizal Versus the Church 310
Womanizer/Woman Hater 310
Malicious Allegations Against Rizal 311
Rizal’s Poems Proven to be Not His 313
Putting Rizal in the Proper Perspective 313
Rizal had Time for Fun too 315
When will Rizal’s influence Finally End? 316
Exercises 317

References 323
About the Author 331